Department of Endocrinology

 

Department of Endocrinology

The endocrine system produces hormones that are messengers which transmit commands to different body cells. Theoretically, the system of hormones is very similar to the nervous system and has a supervisor and converter, and branches extend from it which are responsible for completing functions in different parts of the body. Endocrine systems include the adrenal gland, adrenal cortex, adenohypophysis, posterior pituitary, testis, ovaries, parathyroid glands and the thyroid gland. The endocrine system is important and complex. Before making a treatment decision, all necessary tests must be done to confirm the status of the disease, its location, the hormone responsible for it and its function. Treatment methods vary depending on whether the disease is major or secondary.

There are several ways to treat various endocrine diseases, depending on the situation and need. In certain cases, treatment is conducted with surgical intervention or by medication or radiotherapy.

Diseases of the endocrine system:

Pituitary Tumors: One of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland is the Chromophobe Adenoma, in addition to Acidophilic Adenoma.

Hypopituitarism: The most common cause of hypothyroidism is the tumors of the gland itself. Also, it may be a case of gangrene necrosis due to postpartum necrosis.

Hyperpituitarism: The most common disease caused by hyperactivity of the pituitary gland is Acromegaly. The secretion of excess amounts of growth hormone causes the disease from the pituitary gland.

Diabetes Insipidus: is caused by the lack of sufficient anti-diuretic hormone, which can lead to severe loss of fluids,  up to 20 liters per day through urine.

GRAVES and hyperthyroidism: In this case, there is an increase in the production of protective hormones, and sometimes this condition is part of a syndrome that includes goiter.

Thyroiditis: Several types of thyroiditis have been identified: 

  • Hashimoto: is a class of autoimmune diseases.
  • Riedel’s Thyroiditis: In this disease, the gland changes through the connective tissue, which penetrates the boundaries of the gland and spreads to the trachea and neck muscles.
  • Acute Thyroiditis: Acute thyroiditis is usually caused by inflammation, and is part of the infection process in the neck.
  • Subacute Thyroiditis: The disease usually occurs after 2-3 weeks of upper respiratory infection and thus represents an immune response to viral infection.

Myxedema: a condition characterized by hypothyroidism, can be caused by diseases that destroy thyroid tissues and due to lack of secretion of TSH (due to hypophysis).

Multinodular Goiter: This is an enlargement of the thyroid gland, accompanied by the appearance of more than one link in the gland itself.
It is assumed that one of the causes of this problem can be a lack of protective hormones and excessive production of TSH.

Endemic Goiter: In cases where the person does not receive sufficient amounts of iodine through food, it can lead to insufficient iodine in the gland to produce protective hormones. Thus, gland failure develops.

Metabolic Disorders: There are a number of metabolic disorders that can cause dysfunction in the thyroid gland, including impaired thyroid absorption of iodine, disruption of iodine binding in the gland or disruption of protein structures that bind iodine in the gland.

Tumors of the thyroid gland: Radiation and excess amounts of TSH supposedly contribute to the development of thyroid tumors. These tumors are divided into two main groups: Adenomas and Carcinomas.

Addison’s Disease: is renal failure.  On the top of the diseases that damage the gland, such as tuberculosis, autoimmune diseases, bleeding and more, the lack of cortisol and aldosterone caused by this disease leads to excessive secretion of ACTH.

Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency: The cause of this disease is the lack of ACTH.

Cushing Syndrome: A syndrome caused by an increase in adrenergic stimulants (Glucocorticoids) that affect the replacement of carbohydrates.

Primary Aldosteronism: A non-responsive independent secretion of AD controlled by aldosterone, usually caused by a benign tumor ( a syndrome called Conn).

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Different deficiencies in the enzymes involved in the synthesis of stimulants may lead to the development of a situation in which a particular metabolic pathway stops working while another pathway works excessively in an attempt to compensate.

Pheochromocytoma: A tumor that produces Catecholamines, which originate in sympathetic nervous system cells. Most tumors develop in the abdominal or pelvic cavity, most of which can be found in the adrenal glands. Some of these are benign tumors, but a proportion of them may be malignant

Sexual precocity: The situation in which sexual development begins earlier than usual in both boys and girls.

Hypothyroidism: Hypothyroidism can lead to the disruption of sperm production and endocrine activity, or both.

Cryptorchidism: In this case, the testicles did not fall into their normal place in the scrotum, but remained stuck somewhere in the testicular canal or even in the abdominal cavity.  The condition could be on one side or two sides.

Hyperparathyroidism: Parathormone (PTH) secretion, either as a result of a tumor (usually benign) of one thyroid gland or affected by hypocalcemia.

Hypoparathyroidism: Hypoparathyroidism is a deficiency in the secretion of Parathormone (PTH), leading to hypocalcemia. Most cases of this disease are caused by surgical removal of the thyroid glands or by the destruction of the thyroid gland by various diseases.

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