Department of Pulmonology


Department of Pulmonology

The respiratory system consists of the lungs and the upper and lower respiratory tract. The main function of the respiratory system is to supply the body with oxygen, allowing it to get rid of excess carbon dioxide.

In modern life, it is often usual to live in a polluted environment with a large number of chemical and physical agents, which can harm the lung tissue. These substances exist at home, in the streets, sometimes in certain jobs.  Therefore, the assessment of lung patients requires attention to certain environmental factors that contribute to the development of pulmonary diseases.

Diagnostic measures for pulmonary diseases:

In addition to knowing the history of the patient, as well as conducting a physical examination, there are a number of tests that may help the doctor diagnose pulmonary disease, including:

Chest X-ray: Chest x-rays give a lot of information about the condition of the lungs, including the presence of various infections, chronic lung disease, tumors, related heart disorders, pelvic cavities and more.

Bronchography:Before imaging, contrast is applied to the bronchial tubes so that changes in the bronchial structure can be observed.

Angiography: This radiograph of pulmonary blood vessels is done by inserting a catheter into the blood vessels and injecting the contrast dye. In this procedure, it is possible to diagnose a pulmonary embolism and various other pulmonary vascular diseases.

C.T. Scan: Photography enables accurate and clear diagnosis of various pulmonary diseases.

Radioactive Scan: The injection of radioactive material into the blood vessels, and the inhalation of radioactive materials, allows the doctor to diagnose various operations in blood and pulmonary vessels accordingly.

Ultrasound: A test using sound waves to detect vital operations that occur inside the lung.

Skin test: In some cases it is necessary to inject different antigens in the skin of the patient, to identify various diseases, such as tuberculosis and Sarcoid disease.

Sputum test: A sputum test is necessary for different scenarios, and occurs through the patient spitting sputum to be examined for the presence of blood, bacteria, white cells or cancer cells. This simple, inexpensive test may give your doctor valuable information.

Bronchoscopy: A flexible bipolar tube can be inserted into the bronchi and directly examine the internal structure of the bronchial tubes. It is, therefore, possible to diagnose various tumors and to study the nature of different inflammatory operations. A biopsy of suspicious tissue can also be performed in the bronchus.

Pulmonary Biopsy: There is a need to examine lung tissue, this occurs through pulmonary acupuncture, and injecting a small amount of tissue for examination. In the case of accumulation of fluids in the Ciliary cavity, a biopsy of the cortex can be taken.

Respiratory and Lung Diseases:

Chronic Bronchitis: What flags chronic Bronchitis disease is that the patient suffers from sputum in his lungs all the time and spits it out most of the day, for three consecutive months or more.

Asthma: A lung disease characterized by bouts of secondary bronchial problems, various external and internal factors such as allergens, irritation of the Bronchitis (due to gas and smoke), physical exertion, certain medications, stress and respiratory infections.

Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: A group of lung diseases with similar symptoms, which cause progressive damage to lung function with obstructive pulmonary embolism and destruction of the lung tissue. The disease is due to the patient’s exposure to a combination of bronchitis and conjunctivitis with emphysema. The most common complaint among these patients is shortness of breath, wheezing, frequent tracheal duct infections, fatigue and even weight loss.

Infiltrative Diseases of the Lung: A group of diseases whose radiological image is characterized by the appearance of leaking symptoms in the lung tissue. The most common infiltrative diseases include:

  • Connective tissue diseases.
  • Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis.
  • Pulmonary injury due to drug therapy
  • Goodpasture syndrome.

Lung Abscess is an infection that is present and surrounded by the connective tissue cells, usually caused by Necrotizing Pneumonia or secondary inflammation by Aspiration disease.

Bronchiectasisis an abnormal expansion of the pulmonary bronchi in certain areas of the lung tissue. Usually, the patient does not suffer from the enlargement itself. Instead, he suffers from the complications caused by it, especially from chronic pollution and spitting a large amount of sputum.

Pulmonary embolism: A common phenomenon in which the blockage of blood vessels occurs due to thrombosis, air embolism or amniotic fluid embolism, which break up from different parts of the body and move through the blood stream to the lungs.


Pleural Diseases: There are some complaints by the patient that call into question the existence of this disease, such as acute pain in the chest, which increases with a deep breath. Shortness of breath may be the main complaint in patients, where a large amount of fluid (Hidrotorax) or air (Pneumothorax) accumulates in the crystal cavity.

Respiratory Insufficiency: This condition is the inability of the lung to provide the body with respiratory needs.  The factors that lead to the development of respiratory insufficiency varies but does include a low flow of oxygen which consequently, the raises the level of carbon dioxide above the appropriate standards in the blood.

Lung Tumors:

Bronchogenic Carcinoma: It is one of the most common causes of death from all types of cancer. One of the main factors leading to this cancer is smoking, but genetic factors have been known to be a common factor, too.

Cervical tumors (Carcinoid): This tumor tends to grow mainly in the bronchial cavity, although it may also spread outward. The main complaints of this tumor are a cough, blood necrosis and recurrent lung infections. Treatment, and the most common solution, is surgical tumor resection.

Metastases:The lung is often a site of metastatic tumors; that is, the tumor has appeared in another organ in the body and has escaped to the lung tissue, causing similar complaints in patients with primary lung tumors. Treatment of metastasis is primarily directed at the location of the original tumor, with the addition of drugs to infected cells to reduce metastases.

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